SSLC NOTES:The American War Of Independence-

The American War Of Independence-The British treated the American colonies as centers for collecting raw materials for their industry and as market for selling their products.

Causes of the American War of Independence

  • Tax policies of England
  • Mercantilist Laws
  • Thinkers and their ideologies.
  • Tax policies of England

-The British collect tax from 13 American colonies according to their needs. -But the colonies had no Representation in government.-”No taxation without representation” this slogan was raised by the people of America as part of a powerful agitation

Mercantilist Laws

-Policy implemented by the British merchants with the help of their motherland in the American colonies, is known as Mercantilism

Mercantilist Laws

Main principles of Mercantilism Mercantilist Laws-The goods to and from the colonies must be carried only in British ships or ships built in the British colonies.-Products of the colonies like sugar, wool, cotton, tobacco, etc. could only be exported to England.-British stamp must be affixed on all the legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, license, etc.-Colonies must provide food and quarters for the British Troops which were maintained in the colonies.-Import tax must be paid for the import of tea, glass, paper, etc.

Thinkers and their ideologies.

  • -James Ottis:- No taxation without Representation.
  • -John Locke:- Everyone has some fundamental rights. No government has the right to suspend them.
  • -Thomas Paine:- There is something absurd, in supposing a continent (North America) be perpetually governed by aforeign power (England).

Important incidence of The American War of Independence

  • -The Constitution Convention held at Philadelphia under the leadership of James Madison, framed the American Constitution.
  • -George Washington became the first president of the United States of America, formed in accordance with the new constitution.
  • – Boston Tea Party On 16 December 1773.
  • Beginning of the war
  • – The delegates of all the colonies except Georgia met at Philadelphia in 1774 to protest against the policies and rules imposed by England.- It is known as the First Continental Congress.
  • – The colonies submitted a petition to the King of England
  • – They demanded the revocation of the regulations enforced on industry and commerce and not to impose tax without the approval of the people
  • – The Second Continental Congress held at Philadelphia in1775 elected George Washington as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.
  • -Through the pamphlet titled ‘Common Sense’, Thomas Paine declared that it was wise for the Americans to break the ties with Britain.
  • -The American Continental Congress issued the famous Declaration of Independence on 4 July 1776.-The declaration was prepared By Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin.
  • -The war between England and the colonies in North America that began with the Declaration of Freedom, ended in 1781.
  • -According to the Treaty of Paris in 1783, England ratified the freedom of thirteen Colonies.

All are equal.-Everyone has certain rights.

-To achieve rights, establish governments with the approval of those who rule

-The people have the power to change or abolish the government Prepare a flow chart illustrating the various events that led to the formation of the United States of America.

-Mercantilist Laws.-Ideologies of thinkers.-No taxation without representation.-Boston Tea Party-16 December 1773.-First Continental Congress – 1774.-Petition to the King of England. -The Second Continental Congress 1775.-George Washington – chief of the Continental Army.-Thomas Paine declaration – Americans to break the ties with Britain.-The Third Continental Congress 1776.-Declaration of American Independence on 4 July 1776.-England ratified the freedom of thirteen colonies in 1783.-Formation of the American Constitution.-George Washington became the first president of the United States of AmericaThe impact of American Independence movement on later world history?-Gave direction and motivation to the later freedom struggles and revolutions all over the World.-Put forward the concept of republican form of Government.-Prepared the first written constitution.-Contributed to the concept of federal system that ensured freedom and authority of states in the union.

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